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What Hormonal Shifts Happen Postpartum and How Do They Affect Mood?

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Postpartum hormonal shifts are a natural part of the childbirth process and can exert profound effects on both mood and physical well-being. Understanding these hormonal changes is essential for individuals navigating the postpartum period, as they can significantly impact emotional health and adjustment to parenthood.

Estrogen and Progesterone

Estrogen and progesterone are pivotal hormones that undergo significant fluctuations during pregnancy and childbirth. Throughout gestation, these hormones surge to support the growth and development of the fetus, playing essential roles in maintaining the uterine environment conducive to fetal well-being. However, following childbirth, the abrupt cessation of placental hormone production triggers a rapid decline in estrogen and progesterone levels.

This sharp hormonal shift can have profound effects on mood and emotional well-being during the postpartum period. Many individuals experience what is commonly referred to as the "baby blues," characterized by transient feelings of sadness, irritability, and mood swings. These mood disturbances typically manifest within the first few days to weeks after giving birth and are considered a normal response to hormonal fluctuations, sleep deprivation, and the challenges of adjusting to parenthood.

While the baby blues are generally short-lived and resolve on their own without intervention, affecting approximately 70-80% of postpartum individuals, some may encounter more persistent and severe symptoms indicative of postpartum depression or anxiety. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-20% of new mothers, with symptoms lasting beyond the initial postpartum period and significantly impairing daily functioning and quality of life. Similarly, postpartum anxiety, characterized by excessive worry, restlessness, and intrusive thoughts, can also emerge during this time, affecting up to 15% of postpartum individuals.


Often hailed as the "love hormone" for its remarkable role in fostering maternal-infant bonding and facilitating lactation, oxytocin is a key player in the intricate tapestry of the postpartum hormonal milieu. Produced primarily in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream by the posterior pituitary gland, oxytocin orchestrates a symphony of physiological responses that promote emotional connection and nurturing behaviors.

During the labor process, oxytocin surges to facilitate uterine contractions, aiding in the progression of labor and eventual childbirth. This surge continues postpartum, promoting the expulsion of the placenta and initiating the milk ejection reflex during breastfeeding. Beyond its physiological functions, oxytocin extends its influence to the realm of emotions, fostering feelings of warmth, empathy, and trust.

The release of oxytocin during skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn further amplifies its effects, creating a profound sense of intimacy and bonding. This intimate interaction not only promotes attachment but also triggers a cascade of neurochemical responses that enhance maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to the infant's cues. The reciprocal exchange of gaze, touch, and vocalizations between mother and baby serves as a powerful catalyst for oxytocin release, reinforcing the bond between parent and child.

The impact of oxytocin on mood regulation cannot be overstated. Its presence induces a state of calmness and relaxation, counteracting the stress response and promoting emotional well-being during the postpartum period. Studies have shown that elevated oxytocin levels are associated with reduced anxiety and increased feelings of contentment and security. Moreover, oxytocin acts as a natural pain reliever, alleviating discomfort and promoting feelings of comfort and reassurance.

Beyond its role in maternal-infant bonding, oxytocin influences various aspects of social behavior and interpersonal relationships. It fosters trust and cooperation, enhances empathy and compassion, and promotes prosocial behaviors. These effects extend beyond the mother-infant dyad, shaping the dynamics of familial relationships and community connections.

Oxytocin emerges as a central protagonist in the narrative of postpartum adjustment, weaving its intricate threads of connection, comfort, and emotional resilience. Its multifaceted effects extend far beyond the physiological realm, shaping the emotional landscape of the postpartum experience. By fostering awareness of the pivotal role of oxytocin and promoting practices that enhance its release, we can cultivate a nurturing environment that supports the emotional well-being of new parents and fosters the development of secure parent-child attachments.


As the primary hormone responsible for lactation, prolactin assumes a central role in the complex orchestration of maternal physiology during the postpartum period. Produced by the anterior pituitary gland, prolactin levels surge following childbirth in response to the removal of inhibitory factors that restrain its secretion during pregnancy. This surge in prolactin serves as a critical signal for the initiation and maintenance of milk production, a process essential for nourishing and nurturing the newborn.

The release of prolactin is intricately linked to breastfeeding, with each suckling episode stimulating its secretion through a feedback loop mediated by the hypothalamus. The act of breastfeeding triggers the release of oxytocin, which stimulates milk ejection, further enhancing prolactin release and ensuring a continuous supply of milk. This dynamic interplay between prolactin and oxytocin underscores the synergistic relationship between lactation and maternal-infant bonding.

Beyond its pivotal role in lactation, prolactin exerts profound effects on maternal behavior and emotional well-being. Studies have shown that prolactin levels are positively correlated with maternal responsiveness and nurturing behaviors, facilitating the development of a strong attachment bond between mother and infant. The presence of prolactin is also associated with feelings of contentment, tranquility, and emotional fulfillment, enhancing the overall maternal experience during the postpartum period.

However, the surge in prolactin levels may also contribute to feelings of fatigue and lethargy, particularly in the early postpartum period. The metabolic demands of lactation, combined with the physical demands of caring for a newborn, can exacerbate feelings of exhaustion and overwhelm in some individuals. Moreover, disruptions in sleep patterns and the challenges of adjusting to the demands of parenthood can further compound feelings of fatigue associated with elevated prolactin levels.

Despite the potential challenges posed by elevated prolactin levels, its role in promoting maternal well-being and infant health cannot be overstated. Strategies aimed at supporting lactation and optimizing prolactin release, such as ensuring proper breastfeeding technique, promoting skin-to-skin contact, and offering lactation support services, can contribute to a positive postpartum experience for both mother and baby.


Known as the body's primary stress hormone, cortisol plays a pivotal role in orchestrating the physiological response to stress and maintaining homeostasis in the face of environmental challenges. During the postpartum phase, cortisol undergoes dynamic fluctuations influenced by a myriad of factors, including sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and the demands of newborn care.

The transition to parenthood often brings about significant disruptions in sleep patterns, as new parents adjust to the unpredictable sleep-wake cycles dictated by their newborn's needs. Sleep deprivation, a common feature of the postpartum experience, can amplify cortisol secretion, leading to heightened stress levels and impairments in cognitive function and emotional regulation. Moreover, hormonal changes, including the rapid decline in estrogen and progesterone levels following childbirth, can further exacerbate cortisol dysregulation, contributing to mood disturbances and emotional volatility.

The demands of newborn care, coupled with the challenges of adjusting to the responsibilities of parenthood, can also trigger cortisol release as the body mobilizes resources to meet the demands of caregiving. From managing feeding schedules and diaper changes to navigating the uncertainties of infant sleep patterns, new parents are confronted with a myriad of stressors that can activate the body's stress response system, culminating in elevated cortisol levels.

The repercussions of cortisol dysregulation during the postpartum period extend beyond physiological manifestations to impact mood and overall well-being. Elevated cortisol levels have been linked to increased anxiety, irritability, and feelings of overwhelm, impairing maternal functioning and undermining the quality of the caregiving environment. Moreover, chronic stress and cortisol dysregulation have been implicated in the development of postpartum mood disorders, including postpartum depression and anxiety, highlighting the importance of effective stress management strategies.

Effective stress management strategies are essential for mitigating the adverse effects of cortisol dysregulation during the postpartum period. Incorporating mindfulness practices, relaxation techniques, and stress-reduction interventions can help attenuate cortisol secretion and promote emotional well-being. Additionally, fostering social support networks and engaging in self-care activities can buffer against the impact of stressors, enhancing resilience and adaptive coping strategies.

In summary, cortisol undergoes fluctuations during the postpartum phase, influenced by a myriad of factors including sleep deprivation, hormonal changes, and the demands of newborn care. Elevated cortisol levels can exacerbate stress levels, impacting mood and overall well-being. By implementing effective stress management strategies, new parents can navigate the challenges of the postpartum period with resilience and grace, promoting optimal maternal and infant outcomes.

Putting It Together

It's imperative to recognize the distinction between the transient mood disturbances of the baby blues and more severe and enduring mood disorders like postpartum depression and anxiety. While the exact etiology of postpartum mood disorders remains multifactorial, hormonal fluctuations, along with genetic predisposition, psychosocial stressors, and inadequate support, are among the contributing factors.

Identifying and addressing postpartum mood disorders promptly is vital for ensuring optimal maternal and infant outcomes. Untreated maternal depression and anxiety can negatively impact maternal-infant bonding, breastfeeding initiation and continuation, and child development. Moreover, maternal mental health is intricately linked to family dynamics and overall household functioning, underscoring the importance of comprehensive and timely interventions.

Healthcare providers specializing in perinatal mental health play a crucial role in the detection, assessment, and management of postpartum mood disorders. Through thorough evaluation and personalized treatment plans, which may include psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy, support groups, and lifestyle modifications, individuals can receive the support and resources needed to navigate the challenges of the postpartum period effectively.

In conclusion, the hormonal shifts experienced during the postpartum period can significantly impact mood and emotional well-being. While the baby blues are a common and transient phenomenon, some individuals may develop more severe and enduring mood disorders requiring professional intervention. By fostering awareness, early detection, and access to appropriate care, we can promote positive postpartum experiences and support the mental health and well-being of new parents and their families.


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